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Chengfeng Zhizhi made 20 years of plasma technology research to explain to you what plasma is

Chengfeng Zhizhi made 20 years of plasma technology research to explain to you what plasma is:
Plasma, also called plasma, is an ionized gas-like substance composed of atoms deprived of some electrons and positive and negative electrons generated after atoms are ionized. It exists widely in the universe and is often regarded as removing solids and liquids. , Beyond the air, the fourth state of matter existence. Plasma is a very good electrical conductor, which can be captured, moved and accelerated by a cleverly designed magnetic field. The development of plasma physics provides new technologies and processes for the further development of sciences such as materials, energy, information, environmental space, space physics, and geophysics. To
Plasma that looks "mysterious" is actually a common substance in the universe. Plasma exists in the sun, stars, and lightning, and it accounts for 99% of the entire universe. Now people have mastered the use of electric and magnetic fields to control plasma. For example, welders use high-temperature plasma to weld metals. To
Plasma can be divided into two types: high-temperature plasma and low-temperature plasma. Now low-temperature plasma is widely used in a variety of production fields. For example: Plasma TV, waterproof coating on the surface of baby diapers, increase the barrier properties of beer bottles. More importantly, the use of etching in computer chips has made the Internet age a reality. To
High-temperature plasma only occurs when the temperature is high enough. The sun and stars continuously emit this plasma, which makes up 99% of the universe. Low temperature plasma is plasma that occurs at room temperature (although the temperature of electrons is very high). Low-temperature plasma can be used for surface treatments such as oxidation, denaturation, or precipitation coating treatment on organic and inorganic substances.

Plasma is the fourth state of matter, that is, ionized "gas". It presents a highly excited and unstable state, which includes ions (with different signs and charges), electrons, atoms, and molecules. In fact, people are not unfamiliar with plasma phenomena. In nature, blazing flames, dazzling lightning, and magnificent aurora are all the result of plasma action. For the entire universe, almost 99.9% of the matter exists in a plasma state, such as stars and interstellar space are composed of plasma. Artificial methods such as nuclear fusion, nuclear fission, glow discharge and various discharges can generate plasma. The internal structure of a molecule or atom is mainly composed of electrons and atomic nuclei. Under normal circumstances, that is, the first three forms of the above-mentioned substances, the relationship between electrons and nuclei is relatively fixed, that is, electrons exist around the nuclear field at different energy levels, and their potential or kinetic energy is not large. It is composed of a collection of ions, electrons, and unionized neutral particles, and the whole is in a neutral state of matter.
When the temperature of ordinary gas rises, the thermal motion of gas particles intensifies, causing strong collisions between the particles. A large number of atoms or electrons in molecules are knocked out. When the temperature reaches 1 million to 100 million Kelvin, all the gas atoms are ionized. The total negative charge of ionized free electrons is equal to the total positive charge of positive ions. This highly ionized, macroscopically neutral gas is called plasma.
Plasma and ordinary gas have different properties. Ordinary gas is composed of molecules, and the interaction force between molecules is short-range force. Only when molecules collide, the interaction force between molecules has a significant effect, which is theoretically described by the theory of molecular motion. In plasma, the Coulomb force between charged particles is a long-range force. The effect of the Coulomb force far exceeds the possible local short-range collision effects of charged particles. When the charged particles in the plasma move, they can cause positive or negative charges. Local concentration produces an electric field; the directional movement of the charge causes an electric current to produce a magnetic field. Electric and magnetic fields have to affect the movement of other charged particles, accompanied by extremely strong heat radiation and heat conduction; plasma can be constrained by magnetic fields to make a cyclotron motion, etc. These characteristics of plasma distinguish it from the fourth state of ordinary gas called matter.
In the universe, plasma is the main normal state of matter. Space research, space development, and new technologies such as satellites, aerospace, and energy will enter a new era with plasma research.
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